Working Principle of Centrifuge

What is the working principle of centrifuge? Let’s start with what centrifugation is.

Centrifugation is the use of centrifugal force produced by the high-speed rotation of the centrifugal rotor to accelerate the settling speed of particles in the liquid and separate the substances with different settling coefficients and buoyancy densities in the sample. Therefore, it is necessary to use strong centrifugal force to force these particles to overcome the diffusion and produce sedimentation movement.

Working Principle of Centrifuge
Working Principle of Centrifuge

There is a cylinder rotating at high speed around its axis, called a drum, which is usually driven by a motor. When suspension (or emulsion) is added to the drum, it is rapidly driven to rotate with the drum at the same speed. Under the action of centrifugal force, each component is separated and discharged separately. Usually, the higher the rotating speed of the drum, the better the separation effect.

TR Series Centrifuge
TR Series Centrifuge

According to the structure and separation requirements, industrial centrifuges can be divided into filter centrifuges, sedimentation centrifuges and separators.

Filtration centrifuge: centrifuge for centrifugal filtration, centrifuge relying on filter screen and centrifugal force.

The working principle of the filter centrifuge: there are many small holes in the wall of the drum, there is a filter screen (filter cloth) in the wall, the suspension rotates in the drum, and the liquid phase is thrown out of the screen by centrifugal force, while the solid particles are intercepted by the screen, forming a filter cake, thus realizing the solid-liquid separation.

Scope of application: suspension with high solid content and large solid particles (d > 10 um).

Settlement centrifuge: A new type of horizontal screw discharge centrifuge, its working principle is to use the difference of solid-liquid specific gravity, and rely on the centrifugal force field to expand it thousands of times, the solid phase is settled under the centrifugal force, so as to achieve solid-liquid separation, and discharge the body separately under the action of a special mechanism.

The working principle of sedimentation centrifuge is that there are no holes on the drum and no filters. The suspension rotates at high speed with the drum, and different centrifugal inertia forces are produced due to the different proportion of solid and liquid phases. Solid particles with large centrifugal force are deposited on the inner wall of the drum, while liquid phase is deposited in the inner layer, and then separately discharged from different outlets to achieve the purpose of separation.

Scope of application: less solid content and smaller solid particles (d < 10 um).

TR Series Centrifuge
TR Series Centrifuge

Above is the detailed introduction of the working principle of centrifuge, we must understand these principles, in order to better use the practice.

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